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The Hundred Years' War 1337-1453

The Hundred Years' War was fought between England and France over a period of more than a hundred years, to be exact from 1337 - 1453.


The Hundred Years' War in a Nutshell

Battles flared up sporadically and took place mainly because of disagreements concerning the legitimate successor to the French crown.

The battleground was almost entirely in France.

Map of France in 1453, Time of the Hundred Years' War
Map of France in 1453

 

What Started the War?

In 1337, French king Philip VI confiscated Guyenne, an area in southwest France that belonged to the English king Edward III.


This act became the straw that broke the camel's back and turned an ongoing quarrel between England and France into an outright war between the two.

 

What Ended the War?

The turning point of the war was the raising of the  Siege of Orleans by the English in 1429. They were driven out of Northern France and the final battle took place at Castillon on July 17, 1453, with a victory for France.

 

 

Joan of Arc
NOT YOUR AVERAGE 17 YEAR OLD —
JOAN OF ARC

Joan of Arc led the French army to victory at Orléans when she was only 17 years old. This event was the turning point in the Hundred Years' War. A peasant girl, Joan became a symbol of national consciousness.

At age 19, she was captured and burned as a heretic because she claimed to have been guided by divine voices.

 




Timeline of the Hundred Years' War

1340 Edward III of England declares himself king of France

1340 Naval battle of Sluys, Netherlands; English victory

1346 Battle of Crécy, also called the Battle of Cressy, France; English victory

1356
Battle of Poitiers, France; English victory and capture of the French King John II

1360
Treaty of Brétigny

1360
Treaty of Calais

1372 Naval battle of La Rochelle, France; the French regain control of the English Channel

1407 Civil war breaks out in France

1415
Battle of Agincourt, France; English victory

1429, February 12 - Battle of the Herrings (Battle of Rouvay)

1429 English raise
Siege of Orleans, France

1429, June 18 - Battle of Patay, French victory

1431, May 30 - Joan of Arc burns at the stake in Rouen

1450 Battle of Formigny, France; French victory

1451
Guyenne, France, recaptured by the French

1453 Battle of Castillon, France; French victory


 

Victims of the Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War together with the plague killed at least a third of the population of Europe (six to ten million.)

 

Who Won? Who Lost?

France was the victor of the more than 100 years of war. It regained all of its continental estates from the English, except Calais, which the English eventually relinquished in 1558.

More detail: France looked very bad in the first part of the Hundred Years' War. However, they managed to turn things around.


Here is the
Hundred Years' War in the Stream of Time.




 

Maps on the Hundred Years' War


Map of France 1314
Map of France in 1314 - Prior to the War


Map of Edward's Route to Crecy - France 1346
1346 The Hundred Years War: Edward's Route to Crecy


Map of the Battle of Crecy 1346
1346 Battle of Crecy


Battle of Poitiers: Positioning - MAP
1356 Battle of Poitiers: Positioning


Map of the Battle of Poitiers 1356
1356 Battle of Poitiers


Europe in 1360
EUROPE 1360
Click map to enlarge


France After the Treaty of Bretigni, 1360
1360 France


Map of France 1360
1360 France (USMA)



This is a map of the English campaigns in France during the reign of Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

English Campaigns in France in the Reign of Edward III, 1327 - 1377.
France 1327 - 1377
Click map to enlarge

And more maps...
 

Burgundian Lands 1435 and 1493
Map of the Burgundian Lands 1361-1543


France at the Death of Edward III, 1377
1377 France


The Great Schism 1378-1417
1378-1417 Europe Great Schism



This is a map of the extent of the English conquests in France, 1382 - 1453.

 Extent of the English Conquests in France, 1382 - 1453
France 1382 - 1453
Click map to enlarge

And even more maps...

Europe 15th Century
15th Century Europe



Henry V's First Campaign in France, 1415
Map of Henry V's First Campaign in France 1415



Map of France 1422
1422 France


Map of France 1453
1453 France


England and France 1455-1494
1455-1494 England and France

 

 

 

 

 

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