Treaty of Turin — March 24, 1860
Here is Turin on a history map:
Map Location of Turin
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The Treaty of Turin was concluded between France, led by Napoleon
Sardinia-Piedmont, led by Victor Emmanuel II.
Savoy and the County of Nice was given to France in
exchange for French military support against Austria and general
French good-will regarding the formation of a unified Italy under
leadership of the Duke of Savoy.
The plebiscite of Savoy on April 22
and 23, 1860, and the plebiscite of Nice on April 15 and 16, 1860,
sealed the deal, rigged or not.
Savoy voted 99.3% and Nice voted 99.8%
in favor of annexation to France.
But not everybody was happy.
Switzerland was against it, seeing herself now surrounded by France
in the southwest.
England's policy was that of a balance
of power in Europe, thus, England sided with the Swiss.
Garibaldi himself, born in Nice,
thought the deal unconstitutional. He channeled his anger into
energy and in May 1860, he was on his way to conquer Sicily and