U.S. ARMY IN MEXICO
Mexican History 1916
Timeline - Year 1916
announces that 20,000 troops will be dispatched to join
the 10,000 already assigned to the south.
March 8/9, 1916
Raid on Columbus, New
Pancho Villa and 500 of his men attacked the small border
town of Columbus, NM.
The town consisted of a few hundred
inhabitants and a US garrison of around 600 men. Approx. 17
US citizens, mostly civilians, were killed. It is estimated that
also more than 100 of Villa's men were killed.
March 15, 1916
As a consequence of the Raid on Columbus, the US sends 10,000 US soldiers,
General John J. Pershing, after
the attackers, who disappeared back into Mexico, which meant that a
foreign army now roamed on Mexican soil. They did so with
permission, mind you.
Allowing their troops to enter
the country was not enough for the US. The United States also
cancelled money and arms that were promised to the Carranza
government. The Mexican government, was foaming of course,
which was presumably exactly what the attackers of Columbus were
The Americans never caught
whoever was behind the Raid of Columbus and they returned gradually
toward the border early 1917. Carranza got a lot of heat for his
decision to let the American troops in, especially because they were very
reluctant to leave again. Tricky situation for Carranza, who
consequently sought alliances with the Germans.
By the way,
Hipolito denied that Pancho Villa had any
involvement in the raid on Columbus.
GENERAL JOHN PERSHING
IN MEXICO 1916
Library of Congress
March / April 1916
Emiliano Zapata's generals.
De la O shoots
April 14, 1916
goes back to Mexico City.
April 16, 1916
Emiliano Zapata's cousin, General
Amador Salazar checks out after catching a
stray bullet with his neck at Yautepec.
April 29, 1916
Garza's troops are now holding positions around Cuernavaca,
Emiliano Zapata's current place of residence.
May 1, 1916
Emiliano Zapata abandons Cuernavaca.
May 2, 1916
Garza enters Cuernavaca, gives Lorenzo Vázquez,
former governor of
Morelos, the boot. New constitutional military
governor of the state is Dionisio Carreón.
May 5, 1916
Lorenzo Vázquez killed by Carrancistas.
May 6, 1916
Garza reports proudly to
Alvaro Obregon, who is now
Carranza's War Secretary, that the campaign
resides at his Tlaltizapán
The federals exile 1,300 citizens of
and send them north.
Carrancistas are moving in on Tlaltizapán.
first retreats to Jojutla, then to Huautla.
Garza rocks the house
down at Tlatizapán, Zapata's former headquarters. Executed were 286
people, including 112 women and 42 children.
The federal troops raped and pillaged
their way through
and gave the people again reason to rekindle revolution. The federal troops, Los
Constitucionalistas, were better known as Los
Consusuñaslistas, the ones with their fingers ready, because of
the widespread looting.
Zapata and his
guerrillas were back on
their mission again.
June 21, 1916
The Battle of Carrizal. American
troops, led by Captain Charles T. Boyd,
fight 400 Carranza troops. The Americans lost all their officers and
were routed. Ten Americans wounded, 24 captured. At least 30
Mexicans killed and 40 wounded.
July 9, 1916
The federal commander issues a manifesto to the "Natives of
in which he warns he would "proceed with especial severity against
all the state's pueblos" if the people continued to provide support
July 16, 1916
Battle of Tlayacapa.
Zapatistas and Federals fight for 7 hours at Tlayacapa.
July 17, 1916
Two hundred Zapatistas attack Tlaltizapán.
September 30, 1916
Garza strikes again at Tlaltizapán and executes 180 more of
its inhabitants, both sexes.
October 4, 1916
Battle of Xochimilco.
Zapata's troops strike at Xochimilco pumping station which supplies
Mexico City with water. This battle is one of the heaviest ones in
October 11, 1916
Zapatistas attack San Ángel, a southwest suburb of Mexico City.
The Zapatistas have
countryside back under control and the fighting shifts more
towards the state border.
October 26, 1916
gives special orders for his officers to shoot on the spot
any person caught in banditry or abusing local rights.
November 7, 1916
A train gets blown up just outside of the capital, killing about 400
military and civilian passengers.
November 11, 1916
Garza issues instructions that anyone who directly or
will be executed. Anyone caught on roads
without a pass will be shot immediately, as will anyone discovered
near any railroads.
The federal garrisons are plagued by malaria, typhoid, dysentery,
and all the good stuff war can challenge your immune system with.
is back at Tlaltizapán.
December 1, 1916
Zapata attacks the Jojutla and Trienta haciendas, causing 500
December 2, 1916
Zapata continues his campaign.